MALARIA MalariaCross.com. Cross fertilization on Malaria research


MalariaCross.com. Cross fertilization site on Malaria for all research discussion but also to surface to other non scientist people interested in solving the problem, giving all a chance to contribute with different approaches and views. There are times that not only experts but common people have ideas on how to overcome some of the problems that make spread Malaria faster or slower. Make the cycle details available to everyone. Share ideas and available research results for the complete cycle. Treat the cycle as a process workflow with measurable point’s and benchmark, explain clearly where are the points that need to be addresses or need a creative solution, specially on how to reduce costs on the chain to be able to have medicine for all at a low cost as well as continue development of a vaccine not jet available. Have relevant content such as define historical milestones and what they have consisted of. Make it a collaborative process where we have 2 areas the proven facts and tested ideas and the unproven facts and untested ideas. Site could include an artificial intelligence learning iterative device fed by experts, current researchers, on the field doctors and hygienists and epidemiologists. Bright ideas can come from anyone and anywhere, especially from affected areas. Like the Chagas discovery from Doctors and researchers of the affected areas. The suggested name for this site is MalariaCross.com, in a similar fashion as the Red Cross, to save from Malaria, especially Children and women. We would like the Cross to convey/have a dual meaning for the cross word/icon Cross of the saving part but also cross for crossing it out of the map, with the objective of eradicating Malaria


Background QUOTED From Wikipedia

“Pregnant women and children are hurt most by malaria. When they get malaria, they get sicker.

40% of people live in a place where there is malaria. Malaria is in these places:

· Africa

· Asia (mostly in India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia)

· Central and South America

· Hispaniola

· Eastern Europe

· South Pacific (the part of the Pacific Ocean south of the equator)


Malaria Distribution

Every year, 300 to 700 million people get malaria. It kills more than 2 million people every year. At least 2,3 billion people are at risk according to the WHO (World Health Organization) The biggest problem is in Africa. 90% of the people who die from malaria are there. More than 50% of the people who die from malaria are children. In Africa, 20% of children under five die from malaria. Even if children do not die, many have brain damage.

Most of these deaths could be stopped with medicine or with ways to stop mosquitoes. UNICEF says: the medicine that costs the most for malaria is only $2.40 to help one adult. But many of the places malaria may be found are in poor countries. These countries do not have enough money to stop the mosquitoes, or to give people medicine

People usually get malaria from the Anopheles mosquitoes. The Plasmodium goes into people by mosquitoes bites. The Plasmodium is in the mosquito's saliva. (Saliva is moisture, or spit, made in the mouth.) The mosquito's saliva carries the Plasmodium into the person. The person is then infected with Plasmodium. This makes the person have the disease malaria


Anopheles Gambiae

The kind of mosquito that carries malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Only the female mosquito gives people malaria.

A few people do not get malaria from mosquitoes. A baby can get it while inside his mother. This is called maternal-fetal transmission. People can also get malaria from a blood transfusion. This is when someone gives blood to another person. People can also get it from using a needle that someone else used first.


TREATMENT

    1. If no medicine is given, people always die.

    2. Even if medicine is given 15%-20% of people with it die.

People with different kinds of malaria need different medicines. The medicine that works for one kind of malaria may not for another kind. So it is very important to know which species of Plasmodium   the person has.

Giemsa stain shows malaria trophozoite in red blood cell and Electron micrograph of a malaria sporozoite

If the species is not known, the person should be given medicine and care like they have falciparum malaria - the worst kind.

It is also important to know where the person got malaria. Plasmodium in some places are resistant to some medicines. So the medicines to treat malaria in Africa are different from the medicines to treat malaria from South America.

It is important for doctors to learn about malaria treatment. Resistance to medicines changes. Places where there was no resistance can get resistant malaria. So doctors need to know when this changes. If a doctor treats a person with malaria, he should know what places in the world have resistant malaria. If he has not treated a person in a long time, he should check before treating people


PREVENTION

The best way to treat malaria is to not get it!

There are three ways to prevent malaria:

  • Control mosquitoes

  • Keep mosquitoes from biting

  • Take medicine to keep from getting sick after a bite, especially in those parts of the world where people get malaria.


Vector control
is one way to stop malaria. Vector means an organism that carries an infectious disease to another organism. For malaria, the vector is the anopheles mosquito. It carries Plasmodium to people.


There are many way to do good vector control. The best ways are different in different places. This depends on the environment. It also depends on how much malaria is in the place. So the best way to do vector control in the United States is different than the best way to do vector control in South Africa.

The most used method of vector control is pesticides. These are chemicals that kill the mosquito. The first pesticide used for vector control wads (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.) DDT was first used in World War II

DDT worked very well for vector control. It killed mosquitoes. It did not make people very sick at the time it was used. It did not cost very much money. Other chemicals for vector control had not been invented yet.

In many places mosquitoes became resistant to DDT. This meant that DDT didn't work anymore in these areas. The places where mosquitoes are DDT-resistant are:

· Sri Lanka

· India

· Pakistan

· Turkey

· Central America

Scientists also worried that DDT was making people and animals sick. Scientists think it might cause hormones to not work right. It might also make people and animals have trouble reproducing (getting pregnant and making babies.) It killed a lot of wildlife too.

They learned that DDT stays in the environment for a long time. They learned also that DDT used in one place may go all over the world. DDT used in Africa may go to Europe. So people are worried that DDT used today will stay in the world for a long time. This is why DDT is not allowed to be used in farming anymore.

For these reasons, people mostly use other chemicals for vector control. Organophosphate or carbamate pesticides are used, like malathion or bendiocarb. These cost more money than DDT. And there are ways to control malaria that don't use chemicals at all.

Vector control is not the only way to stop malaria. And DDT is not the only chemical that can be used for vector control. The best way to stop malaria is to use a combination of methods. In some places, DDT may be a useful part of a program to stop malaria. This is why DDT is still allowed to be used for controlling malaria.

KEEPING MOSQUITOES FROM BITING

The mosquito that carries malaria comes more at dawn (when the sun comes up) and dusk (when the sun goes down.) Be most careful at these times.

Wear long pants and shirts with long sleeves.

Wear mosquitoes repellent (this is a chemical that mosquitoes do not like, so they do not bite.) Mosquitoes will bite through thin cloth. So repellent should be used on skin and clothes.

Pesticides can be used in rooms to kill mosquitoes.

When sleeping outside, people use a mosquito net. This is made from cloth that air can go through but keeps mosquitoes out. It is put over a bed where people sleep to keep mosquitoes out. Sometimes people also use it when they are not sleeping. It is best to use mosquito nets that have been treated with Permethrin, which repels and kills mosquitoes.”

Read/source: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria, http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ague, http://www.malariavaccine.org/ab-ov1-what.htm

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  • minnie
    24 de mayo 10:08

    I found this on the Welcome TRust Uk site

    Spectacular eesults from ginghao use on Malaria treatments

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial drug based on a Chinese herb called qinghao (sweet wormwood), is having a major impact on the treatment of malaria.

    Every year, malaria kills over 2.5 million people across the world - most of them children under five.

    Wellcome Trust-funded scientists in South-east Asia, led by Professor Nick White, developed and tested the drug in the 1990s and have used it to treat malaria in Vietnam and Thailand with huge success.

    * Vietnam: In the early 1990s cases of malaria were running at 1.5 million a year with a mortality rate of 2500 per year. Using artemisinin, the death rate has dropped to around 100 per year.
    * Thailand: There are 100 000 refugees camped on the Thai/Burmese border. Since introducing artemisinin in 1994, cases of malaria have fallen by 90 per cent.
    * Artemisinin is now being used routinely in combination with other anti-malarial drugs, to delay the appearance of drug resistance. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended by the World Health Organization as the best strategy for treatment of malaria.

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